Invented Edens: Techno-Cities of the Twentieth Century (Lemelson Center Studies in Invention and Innovation series)

Industrialization created towns of Dickensian squalor that have been crowded, smoky, soiled, and disease-ridden. through the start of the 20 th century, city visionaries have been searching for how one can increase either residing and dealing stipulations in business towns. In Invented Edens, Robert Kargon and Arthur Molella hint the arc of 1 kind of city layout, which they time period the techno-city: a deliberate urban built along with huge commercial or technological companies, mixing the technological and the pastoral, the mill city and the backyard urban. Techno-cities of the 20 th century variety from manufacturing unit cities in Mussolini's Italy to the Disney production of get together, Florida. Kargon and Molella exhibit that the techno-city represents an test in integrating smooth expertise into the realm of perfect lifestyles. Techno-cities reflect society's figuring out of present applied sciences, and even as search to regain the misplaced virtues of the edenic pre-industrial village. the assumption of the techno-city transcended ideologies, crossed nationwide borders, and spanned the total 20th century. Kargon and Molella map the idea that via a chain of exemplars. those comprise Norris, Tennessee, domestic to the Tennessee Valley Authority; Torviscosa, Italy, equipped via Italy's Fascist govt to house artificial cloth production (and featured in an early brief by way of Michelangelo Antonioni); Ciudad Guayana, Venezuela, deliberate through a crew from MIT and Harvard; and, ultimately, Disney's Celebration--perhaps the last word techno-city, a fable urban reflecting an period during which digital reviews are speedily exchanging real ones.

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Four. Roberta Cortiana, Giuseppe de Min, 1890–1962, thesis for architectural measure, Istituto Universitario di Architettura Venezia, 1991–1992, vol. 1, p. 86. Spengler is quoted in Riccardo Mariani, Facismo e Città Nuove (Feltrinelli, 1976), 796–797. five. Ghirardo, construction New groups, 24. 6. Ibid. , 26. 7. Cortiana, Giuseppe de Min, ninety one eight. Giorgio Pellegrini and Massimiliano Vittori, Sabaudia, 1933–1943, L’Utopia Mediterranea del Razionalismo (Comune di Sabaudia, Consorzio di Bonifica dell’Agro Pontino, 2002), four. nine. Ghirardo, construction New groups, 25. 10. Ibid. , four. 168 notes to bankruptcy three eleven. Ibid. , 26. 12. Quoted in Henry Millon, “Some New cities in Italy within the 1930s,” in paintings and structure within the provider of Politics, ed. H. Millon and L. Nochlin (MIT Press, 1978), 326. thirteen. Fascist Modernities: Italy, 1922–1945 (University of California Press, 2001), four. 14. Massimo Bortolotti, Torviscosa, Nascità di una Città (Casamassima Libri, 1988), sixty eight. 15. Marinotti, “Note Autobiografiche,” in Viaggio Nella Memoria, Storia delle Origini Industriali di Torviscosa e del suo Fondatore Franco Marinotti, Associazione “Primi di Torviscosa” con l. a. collaborazione delle Industrie Chimiche Caffaro, Torviscosa, 1998, 9–24. sixteen. Bortolotti (Torviscosa, 65–105) outlines Marinotti’s courting with SNIA. Marinotti used to be officially named president in 1939. 17. “Torre di Zuino, alla Vigilia dell’arrivo della SAICI,” from Cooperative Culturali Friuli-Venezia Giulia, n. d. , from records of SNIA. we're indebted to Enea Baldassi for exhibiting us this fiftieth anniversary record. 18. Ghirardo, development New groups, 86–87. 19. Cortiana, Giuseppe de Min, 70. 20. The citation is from “Torre di Zuino, alla Vigilia dell’arrivo della SAICI. ” the interpretation is ours. 21. Bortolotti, Torviscosa, 83–84. For examples of this architectural scholarship, he refers back to the writings of Giuseppe Pagano, really the textual content by means of Pagano and Guarniero Daniel on L’architettura Rurale Italiana. 22. Bortolotti, Torviscosa, ninety two. 23. Ibid. , ninety eight. 24. Painter, Mussolini’s Rome, 24. 25. Bortolotti (Torviscosa, eighty five, 89) contrasts Marinotti’s philosophy with Olivetti’s “progetto di razionalizzazione,” although he has a tendency to overestimate the latter’s Taylorist and “productivist” procedure. notes to chaPters three and four 169 26. Cortiana, Giuseppe de Min, 110–112. 27. Ibid. , 119–120; Ghirardo, development New groups, fifty five, 87. 28. First released as Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Il Poema di Torre Viscosa. Parole in libertà futuriste, Gli Aeropoeti Futuristi dedicano al Duce (Milan, Officine Esperia, 1938). we're mentioning the model reprinted in Bortolotti, Torviscosa, l. a. Poesia industriali di Marinetti, 47–62. Translation via the authors. 29. Painter, Mussolini’s Rome, eighty five, 87. 30. Reproduced in Cortiana, Giuseppe de Min, a hundred seventy five: 1–3. 31. even though indexed in Antonioni’s filmography, the fast documentary used to be misplaced until eventually the early Nineteen Nineties, whilst a pupil from the neighborhood cinema society rediscovered it within the SNIA files. fortunately, Torviscosa’s Pioneers had the foresight to maintain it in addition to different documentary motion pictures approximately SNIA and their city.

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